References

Policy Overview
1. Rogelj, J., et al., Nature Reports on Climate Change. (2009). Available at http://www.nature.com/climate/2009/0907/full/climate.2009.57.html.

Ocean Warming Overview
1. Hays, G.C., Richardson, A.J., and Robinson, C., Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 20, 337-344 (2005).

2. Cabanes, C., Cazenave, A., and Le Provost, C., Science. 294, 840-845 (2001).

3. Baker, A.C., Glynn, P.W., and Riegl, B., Estuarine, Costal and Shelf Science. 80, 435-471 (2008).

4. Carpenter, K.E., et al., Science. 321, 560-563 (2008).

5. Bakun, A., Science. 247, 198-201 (1990).

6. Nicholls, R.J., Hoozemas, F.M.J., and Marchand, M., Global Environmental Change. 9, 69-87 (1999).

7. Bindoff, N.L., J. Willebrand, V. Artale, A, Cazenave, J. Gregory, S. Gulev, K. Hanawa, C. Le Quéré, S. Levitus, Y. Nojiri, C.K. Shum, L.D. Talley and A. Unnikrishnan, 2007: Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Ocean Warming: Coral Bleaching
1. Buddemeier, R.W., Kleypas, J.A., and Aronson, R.B. “Coral Reefs and Global Climate Change: Potential Contributions of Climate Change to Stresses on Coral Reef Ecosystems.” (Pew Center for Climate Change, Arlington, VA  2004).

2. Fischlin, A., G.F. Midgley, J.T. Price, R. Leemans, B. Gopal, C. Turley, M.D.A. Rounsevell, O.P. Dube, J. Tarazona, A.A. Velichko, 2007: Ecosystems, their properties, goods, and services. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 211-272.

3. Nicholls, R.J., P.P. Wong, V.R. Burkett, J.O. Codignotto, J.E. Hay, R.F. McLean, S. Ragoonaden and C.D. Woodroffe, 2007: Coastal systems and low-lying areas. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 315-356.

4. Dikou, A., et al., Marine Ecology. 30, 425-436 (2009).

5. Moberg, F., and Folke, C., Ecological Economics. 29, 215-233 (1999).

6. Hughes, T.P., et al., Science. 301, 929-933 (2003).

7. Sadovy, Y., Fish and Fisheries. 6, 167-185 (2005).

8. Hoegh-Guldberg, O., et al., “Pacific in Peril: Biological, Economic and social impacts of Climate change on pacific coral reefs” (Greenpeace, 2000).

9. Veron, J.E.N., A Reef in Time: The Great Barrier Reef from beginning to end. (The Belknap Press Cambridge, MA ed. 1, 2008), pp. 289.

10. Brusca, R.C., Brusca, G.J., Invertebrates. (Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, ed. 2, 2002), pp. 936.

11. Berger, W., Ocean: Reflections on a century of exploration. (University of California Press, Los Angeles 2009), pp. 519.

12. Hoegh-Guldberg, O., et al., Science. 318, 1737-1742 (2007).

13. Baker, A.C, Glynn, P.W., and Riegl, B., Estuarine, Costal and Shelf Science. 80, 435-471 (2008).

14. Glynn, P.W. and D’Croz, L.D., Coral Reefs. 8, 181-191 (1990).

15. Peñaflor, E.L., Skirving, W. J., Strong, A. E., Heron, S. F., and David, L. T., Coral Reefs. 28, 841-850 (2009).

16. Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Marine and Freshwater Research. 50, 839-866 (1999).

17. IPCC, 2007: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 7-22.

18. Barnett, T.P., et al., Science. 309, 284-287 (2005).

19. Glynn, P.W., Coral Reefs. 12, 1-17 (1993).

20. Nash, J.M., El Niño Unlocking the Secrets of the Master Weather-Maker. (Warner Books Inc., New York, NY, 2002), pp. 340.

21. Miller, J., Waara, R., Muller, E., and Rogers, C., Coral Reefs. 25, 418 (2006).

22. Diaz-Paulido, G., et al. PLoS ONE. 4, 4 (2009). (Available at http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0005239).

Ocean Warming: Water Column Stratification
1. Levitus, S., Antonov, J.I., Boyer, T.P., and Stephens, C., Science. 287, 2225-2229 (2000).

2. Anand, G., Science. 283, 2077-2079 (1999).

3. Behrenfeld, M.J., et al., Nature. 444, 752-755 (2006).

4. Siegel, D.A., Doney, S.C., and Yoder, J.A., Science. 296, 730-733 (2002).

5. Townsend, D.W., Keller, M.D., Sieracki, M.E., and Ackleson, S.G., Nature. 360, 59-62 (1992).

6. Sarmiento, J.L., Gruber, N., Brzezinski, M.A., and Dunne, J.P., Nature. 427, 56-60 (2004).

7. Roemmich, D., and McGowan, J., Science. 267, 1324-1326 (1995).

Ocean Warming: Sea Level Rise
1.  Alley, R.B., The Two-Mile Time Machine: Ice cores, abrupt climate change, and our future. (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2000), pp. 229.

2. Cabanes, C., Cazenave, A., and Le Provost, C., Science. 294, 840-845 (2001).

3. Bindoff, N.L., J. Willebrand, V. Artale, A, Cazenave, J. Gregory, S. Gulev, K. Hanawa, C. Le Quéré, S. Levitus, Y. Nojiri, C.K. Shum, L.D. Talley and A. Unnikrishnan, 2007: Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

4. Domingues, C.M., et al., Nature. 453, 1090-1093 (2008).

5. University of Copenhagen, “Synthesis Report from Climate Change Global Risks, Challenges, & Decisions” (University of Copenhagen, 2009).

6. Nicholls, R.J., P.P. Wong, V.R. Burkett, J.O. Codignotto, J.E. Hay, R.F. McLean, S. Ragoonaden and C.D. Woodroffe, 2007: Coastal systems and low-lying areas. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 315-356.

8. Nicholls, R.J., Hoozemas, F.M.J., and Marchand, M., Global Environmental Change. 9, 69-87 (1999).

9. http://www.mbari.org/expeditions/Hawaii/history&purpose.htm.

10. Oude Essink, G.H.P., Ocean & Coastal Management. 44, 429-449 (2001).

11. Bindoff, N.L., J. Willebrand, V. Artale, A. Cazenave, J. Gregory, S. Gulev, K. Hanawa, C. Le Quere, S. Levitus, Y. Norjiri, C.K. Shum, L.D. Talley, and A. Unnikrishnan.  2007: Obsrevations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis.  Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)].  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Ocean Acidification Overview
1. Feely, R., Sabine, C., and Farby, V., NOAA’s Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory Carbon Dioxide Program. http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/pubs/PDF/feel2899/feel2899.pdf

2. Le Quere, C., et al., Science. 316, 1735-1738 (2007).

3. Le Quere, C., et al., Nature Geoscience. Published online 11/17/09. DOI: 10.1038/NGEA689

4. Science Brief Pew Center On Global Climate Change. (2009).

5. http://www.pewclimate.org/docUploads/ocean-acidification-Aug2009.pdf

Ocean Acidification:  Acidosis
1. Guinotte, J.M., and Fabry, V.J.,  Annals of the New York Academy Sciences. 1134, 320-342 (2008).

Ocean Acidification: Decalcification
1. Hoegh-Guldberg, O., et al., Science. 318, 1737-1742 (2007)

2. Hoepffner, N., et al., European Commission Directorate-General Joint Research Centre. (2006; ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/fp7/environment/docs/water_and_cc.pdf).

3. http://www.sahfos.ac.uk/climate%20encyclopaedia/pdfs/ccreport_final9.pdf

4. Moy, A.D., Howard, W.R., Bray, S.G., and Trull, T.W., Nature Geoscience. 2, 276-280 (2009).

5. Gazeau, F., et al., Geophysical Research Letters. 34, 7-11 (2007).

6. Orr, J., et al., Nature. 437, 681-686 (2005).

7. Harrould-kolieb, E., and Savitz, J., Oceana. (2009). (Available at http://na.oceana.org/en/news-media/publications/reports/acid-test-can-we-save-our-oceans-from-co2).

8. Feely, R.A., Sabine, C.L.., Hernandez-Ayon, J.M., Ianson, D., Hales, B., Science. 320, 1490-1492 (2008).

9. Cao, L., and Caldeira, K., Geophysical Research Letters. 35, L19609, doi:10.1029/2008GL035072.

Ocean Acidification:  Sound Absorption
1. Hester, K.C., Peltzer, E.T., Kirkwood, W.J., and Brewer, P.G., Geophysical Research Letters. 35, 9601-9605 (2008).

2. MBARI news release, Cranking up the Volume, http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2008/co2-sound/co2-sound-release.html

3. Andrew, R.K., Howe, B.M., Mercer, J.A., and Dzieciuch, M.A., Acoustics Research Letters Online. 3, 65-70 (2002).

Climate Change and Ocean Circulation Overview
1. Di Lorenzo E., et al., Geophysical Research Letters. 35, (2008).

2. D’Orgeville, M. and Peltier, W.R., Journal of Climate. 22, 5277-5297 (2009).

3. Barth, J.A., et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104, 3719-3724 (2007).

4. Pierce, S.D., Barth, J.A., Thomas, R.E., and Fleischer, G.W., Geophysical Research Letters. 33, 1-6 (2006).

5. Grantham, B.A., et al., Nature. 429, 749-754 (2004).

6. Chan, F., et al., Science. 319, 920-920 (2008).

7. Yeh, S., et al., Nature. 461, 511-514 (2009).

8. Brierley, A.S. and Kingsford, M.J., Current Biology. 19, R602-R614 (2009).

9. Cowen, R.K. and Sponaugle, S., Annual Review of Marine Science. 1, 442-466 (2009).

10. Levin, L.A., Integrative and Comparative Biology. 46, 282-297 (2006).

Cumulative Impacts: Storm Intensity
1. Narita, D., Tol, R.S.J., and Anthoff, D., Climate Research. 39, 87-97 (2009).

2. Brierley, A.S. and Kingsford, M.J., Current Biology. 19, R602-R614 (2009).

3. Holbrook, S.J., Schmitt, R.J., and Stephens, J.S., Ecological Applications. 7,1299-1310 (1997).

4. Walker, S.J., Degnan, B.M., Hooper, J.N.A., and Skilleter, G.A., Global Change Biology 14, 2755-2770 (2008).

Cumulative Impacts: Hypoxic Zone
1. Gilly, W.F., Markaida, U., Baxter, C.H., Block, B.A., Boustany, A., Zeidberg, L., Reisenbichler, K., Robison, B., Bazzino, G., and Salinas, C., Marine Ecology Progress Series. 324,1-17 (2006). Available online at: http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v324/

2. Whitney, F.A., Freeland, H.J., and Robert, M., Progress Oceanography. 75, 179-199 (2007).

3. Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Annual Report: State of Monterey Bay 2008: 31-33 (2008). Available online at: http://www.mbari.org/news/publications/ar/2008ann_rpt.pdf

4. Bograd, S.G., Castro, C.G., Di Lorenzo, E., Palacios, D.M., Bailey, H., Gilly, W., and Chavez, F.P., Geophysical Research Letters. 35, L12607, doi:10.1029/2008GL034185 (2008).

5. Stramma, L., Johnson, G.C., Sprintall, J., Mohrholz, V., Science. 320, 655-658 (2008).

6. Duce, R.A., LaRoche, J., Altieri, K., Arrigo, K.R., Baker, A.R., Capone, D.G., Cornell, S., Dentener, F., Galloway, J., Ganeshram, R.S., Geider, R.J., Jickells, T., Kuypers, M.M., Langlois, R., Liss, P.S., Liu, S.M., Middleburg, J.J., Moore, C.M., Nickovic, S., Oschlies, A., Pedersen, T., Prospero, J., Schlitzer, R., Seitzinger, S., Sorensen, L.L., Uematsu, M., Ulloa, O., Voss, M., Ward, B., and Zamora, L., Science. 320, 893-897 (2008).

7. Prince, E.D., and Goodyear, C.P., Fisheries Oceanography. 15, 451-464 (2006).

8. Gilly, W.F., Ecosystems Observations for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary 2005: 25-26 (2006). Available online at: http://montereybay.noaa.gov/reports/2005/eco/harvestdsp.html

9. Zeidberg, L.D., and Robison, B.H., Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 104, 12948-12950 (2007).

10. Field, J.C., Baltz, K., Phillips, A.J., and Walker, W.A. CalCOFI Report 48, 131-146 (2007).

Cumulative Impacts: Habitat Change
1. Hughes, A.R., Williams, S.L., Duarte, C.M., Heck, K.L.,  and Waycott. M., Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 7, 242-246 (2009).

2. McWilliams, J.P., Cote, I.M., Gill, J.A., Sutherland, W.J., and Watkinson, A.R.,  Ecology. 86, 2055-2060 (2005).

3. Kleypas, J.A., Buddemeier, R.W., Archer, D., Gattuso, J.P., Langdon, C., and  Opyke, B. N., Science. 284, 118-120 (1999).

4. Sakshaug, E., Bjorge, A., Gulliksen, B., Loeng, H., and Mehlum, F., Polar Biology 14, 405-411 (1994).

5. Atkinson, A., Siegel, V., Pakhomov, E., and Rothery, P., Nature. 432, 100-103 (2004).

Cumulative Impacts: Coastal Erosion
1. Morton, R.A., Miller, T.L., and Moore, L.J., Open File Report 2004-1043, U.S. Geological Survey (2004).

2. Brown, A.C., and McLachlan, A., Environmental Conservation 29, 62-77 (2002).

3. Bruun, P.,  Journal of the Waterways and Harbors Division. 88, 117-130 (1962).

4. Williams, J. B. 2007. Proceedings of the 2007 National Conference on Environmental Science and Technology

5. Nicholls, R. J., P. P. Wong, V. R. Burkett, J. O. Codignotto, J. E. Hay, R. F. McLean, S. Ragoonaden, and C. D. Woodroffe. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M. L. Parry et al., editors. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

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